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WHO Guidelines for Chlorine as Disinfectant.

Poultry Drinking Water Chlorination Fact Sheet

  • Chlorination of water supplies is used to Sterilize, Control, Odour and prevent organic fouling.

  • Safest drinking water system is one that maintains an adequate chlorine residual throughout the distribution system.  Effective chlorination must be done so as to leave a residual chlorine of 0.5 – 1 ppm in the water distribution system.

  • Frequent sampling and continuous chlorine residual monitoring enhances the safety margin.

  • Regular maintenance of residual chlorine in the distribution system will prevent algae and slime deposits.

  • Chlorine is effective against (REFER GRAPH ENCLOSED)

  • Gram positive bacteria – e.g.Lactics, Clostridia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus.

  • Gram negative bacteria – e.g. E-Coli, Salmonella, Psychrotrophs, Spores.

  • Chlorine is unaffected by hard water.

  • To dislodge algae and slime already present in the system, Shock chlorination is most effective.  Chlorine can be applied ranging from 50-150ppm and retained for a period of 12-24 hours for maximum effect.

  • When the birds are already in the house shock chlorination must be done only upto 5 ppm level i.e., the free residual chlorine must not be more than 5ppm.

  • Chlorine will remain in water only for a period of 3-4 hours after which it will dissipate.  However, this does not mean that the water is contaminated.  Once water is disinfected by chlorine, it will remain disinfected unless and until fresh water is added.  It will hold good for a period of 24 hours.

  • Chlorination is effective in a pH range between 7 and 7.5.  At pH 8, also it is effective but more chlorine will be required to achieve the free residual.

  • For drinking purpose, we recommend 2 ppm (mg/litre) dosage of chlorine.  The chlorine demand will vary seasonally based on the water quality.  Hence, the quantity dosed will vary from 1 ppm (mg/litre) to 5 ppm (mg/litre) for a pH range between 7-8.

  • Prior letting out the water to the birds for consumption chlorine must be in contact with water at least for a period of 30-45 minutes.  This will effectively destroy E-Coli.

  • For testing the effectiveness of the disinfection, sample water must be collected within period of 3-4 hours.  A simple residual test conducted within 3-4 hours after dosing chlorine will indicate whether the water is disinfected.  The reason being that when a residual of 0.5 – 1 ppm is available there will be nil bacteria content.

ALGAE & SLIME

Algae and slime cause numerous difficulties in water systems.  Chlorine is most widely used because of its effectiveness and low cost.  Algae is a group of plant organisms that have many thousands of species in a variety of colours.  These organisms produce their own food, using light energy and water by photosynthesis.  Since Sunlight is required for their growth, they are found in almost all surface water supplies such as Lakes, Ponds, Pools, tanks, tower etc., where control methods have not been applied effectively.  Long filaments of large clumps of algae colonies reduce flow in pipe, plug valves and small orifices and encourage corrosion.  Although they do not live in enclosed systems dead colonies create many problems.

Slime is caused by clusters or long filaments caused by bacteria or fungi.  These microorganisms do not produce their own food and therefore do not require sunlight.  Many strains grow best in the dark areas and aggravate the problem by collecting inorganic, dead algae and other debris in their colonies.  The common difficulties arise when air borne particles lodge in slime.  Such occurrences are in open tank/open water supplies.  Slime causes system plugging, retards heat exchange and assists corrosion.

TREATMENT OF ALGAE AND SLIME 

FREE CHLORINE RESIDUAL

Effective chlorination of water supplies will eliminate algae and slime.  By maintaining free residual chlorine of 0.5 to 1 ppm will ensure that algae or slime deposits are prevented.

SHOCK/SLUG CHLORINATION

Periodic shock treatment of the system may be necessary to destroy bacteria growth that has already been established.  Shock treatment by chlorination may require residuals of 50 to 150 ppm.  The water having this range of residual must be maintained in the system and allow to stand for 12-24 hours for effective cleaning.

APPLICATION OF CHLORIFEED

Disinfection of Poultry Drinking Water

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

CHLORIFEED produces chemical sodium hypochlorite (Chlorine based compound) by the method of Electrolysis of SALT and WATER.  The only raw material required is common salt – Sodium Chloride.

CHLORIFEED consists of the following items
S.NO ITEMS

QTY

DESCRIPTION
1
POWER PACK
1
Supplies power to the cell for Electrolysis
2
POWER CORD AC
1
Connects the AC mains to the power pack.
3
POWER CORD DC
1
Connects the power pack to the cell.
4
GENERATOR JAR
1
Capacity 3 litres holds salt and water solution.
5
GENERATOR CELL
1
Electrocell  which passes power  into the salt solution for electrolysis.
6
CELL CLEANING JAR
1
Holds cleaning acid for cell cleaning at 4 % concentration.
7
MEASURING JAR
1
Capacity 250 ml for measuring sodium hypochlorite for different applications.
8
SALT MEASURE
1
Measure 90-100 gms of Salt.
9
CHLORIGAUGE
1
Chart for Chlorine residual comparison.
10
REAGENT FOR CHLORIGAUGE
1
Reagent for determining the residual chlorine in water.
11
TEST TUBE
2
For mixing reagent and chlorinated water.
12
FUNNEL
1
For pouring water into the jar.
PROCESS OF GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPO CHLORITE CHLORIFEED
  1. Take 300 gms of salt using the measuring jar upto 400ml Mark for Crystal salt and 250ml mark for Power salt

  2. Mix salt and water in the measuring jar.

  3. Pour the salt solution into the Generating jar and fill water until the 10 litres mark.

  4. Ensure the salt is totally dissolved in 10 litres of water.

  5. Connect the CELL power chord to the power pack.

  6. Insert the cell assembly into the Generating jar.

  7. Switch on the power.

  8. Gas bubbles indicate Chlorine generation.

  9. The batch time is 24 hours.

  10. At the end of the batch-24 hours, 10 litres of 10 gpl (grams per litre) concentration of sodium hypochlorite amounting to 100 grams of Chlorine is available.

  11. This 10 litres of solution can treat water at the rate of 1 ppm for 1,00,000 litres of water OR 50,000 litres of water at the rate of 2 ppm depending on the quality of water.

  12.  Sodium hypochlorite generated can be stored in dark coloured cans in a cool dark place.

HOW TO ENSURE THAT WATER IS TREATED?

¨      Water quality varies from place to place. Hence the CHLORINE DEMAND of water also varies. The water is adequately treated only when the presence of FREE RESIDUAL CHLORINE is detected by a chlorine residual test kit.

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF CHLORINE DEMAND OF WATER?

¨      Chlorine demand is the amount of chlorine required to kill bacteria, oxidize iron and other elements in the water and oxidize any organic matter that may be present .

WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FREE RESIDUAL CHLORINE?

Free available residual chlorine is the amount of chlorine remaining in water after the chlorine demand has been met.  If the chlorine demand is greater than the amount of chlorine introduced there will be no residual chlorine. The presence of residual chlorine is an indication that the chlorine demand has been met. The residual content can be confirmed in ppm level by using a simple test kit.

WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF ppm?

¨      Parts per million – ppm  OR  milligram per litre.

      It is the concentration of the chemical in water.

      1ppm    = 1 milligram per litre    = 1 mg/l

       i.e . 1milligram of chlorine ( sodium hypochlorite ) in 1litre of water.

       2 ppm   = 2 milligram per litre    = 2 mg/l

       i.e . 2 milligram of chlorine ( sodium hypochlorite ) in 1litre of water.

       0.5 ppm= 0.5 milligram per litre = 0.5 mg/l

       i.e . 0.5 milligram of chlorine ( sodium hypochlorite ) in 1litre of water.

WHAT IS THE STRENGTH OF THE CHLORIFEED CHEMICAL SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE?

¨      The strength of sodium hypochlorite is expressed in terms of Chlorine availability.

¨      One litre of CHLORIFEED solution consists of 10grams ( 10,000 milligrams ) of chlorine. This is defined as a 10 gpl ( grams per litre concentration) or 1% concentration of sodium hypochlorite.

CONCENTRATION OF CHLORIFEED

1 litre

  2 litres    

3 litres

10 grams

20 grams

30 grams

10,000 milligrams

20,000 milligrams

30,000 milligrams

WHAT IS THE DOSAGE OF CHLORIFEED SOLUTION FOR TREATING DRINKING WATER ?

Depending on the quality of water the chlorine demand will vary.

QUANTITY OF

WATER- Litres

QUANITITY OF CHLORIFEED Litres

10,000 Litres

1

1 Litre

10,000 Litres

2

2 Litres

10,000 Litres

3

3 Litres

OR

QUANTITY OF

CHLORIFEED

Litres

CHLORINE DOSAGE ppm –mg/l

QUANTITY OF

WATER- Litres 

1 Litre

1

10,000 Litres

1 Litre

2

  5,000 Litres

1 Litre

3

  2,500 Litres

HOW TO TEST THE FREE RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN TREATED WATER USING THE TEST KIT?

CHLORIFEED equipment has a standard testing procedure for determining the free residual chlorine.

The farmer can assess the chlorine demand by the following method

  1. Pour the CHLORIFEED solution in the water tank in proportion to the quantity of water.

  2. Consider the water has a chlorine demand of 2 ppm.

  3.  Pour 3 litres of CHLORIFEED solution into the tank containing 15,000 litres of water.

  4. Allow 30 – 45 minutes for the Chlorine solution to mix in the tank water.

  5. Take a sample of treated water from the outlet of the tank in the test tube until the 10ml mark.

  6. Pour the reagent into the test tube.  Close the test tube top with your finger and gently tilt the test tube.

  7. The sample of water will turn to pale pink or blue depending on the available level of chlorine in water i.e. pink – 0.5ppm & blue-1ppm.

Inference:

Water which does not have chlorine or which has not been treated adequately will not turn pink or blue. In such condition more CHLORIFEED solution has to be added and thus ensure sufficient treatment of water.

 

By this method the farmer can ensure the level of treatment required for different quality of water.

 

Also seasonal variations of water quality will be there. Hence dosage of Chlorine will have to be varied according to the demand.

 

Note:

 

The reagent will indicate residual chlorine only until a level of 1ppm.  When excess chlorine is added to water the sample on treating will turn green and then colourless. 

UNITS & EQUIVALENTS

 ppm     =          mg/l     =           gm/m3
 10gpl chlorifeed    =         10000 mg/l   =          10000 ppm

               PPM

One litre 10gpl NaoCl

        Can treat

One litre 50 gpl NaoCl

         Can treat

              1 ppm

      10000 lit

       50000 lit

              2 ppm

        5000 lit

       25000 lit

              5 ppm

        2000 lit

       10000 lit

             10 ppm

        1000 lit

         5000 lit

             50 ppm

          200 lit

         1000 lit

            100 ppm

          100 lit

           500 lit

            150 ppm

            75 lit

           375 lit


COST COMPARISON FOR TREATMENT

CHLORIFEED

PURCHASED HYPOCHLORITE

5 Lit  of  10gpl Chlorifeed

1 Litre of 50gpl market solution

15 paise X 5 litres = 0.75 paise

Rs. 6 to 15/litre
(Price varies in different states)


A.Common edible salt @Rs.6/kg

 90 gram per batch

B.Power @ Rs.5/KW

 90 Watts

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