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  BULLETINS
 

 

Safety Systems

Increased and widespread uses of chlorine in modern technology and the accompanying demand for a dependable safety equipment to combat chlorine leakage has necessitated the development of a suitable chlorine Leak Absorption system.

According to the "Compressed Gas Cylinder Act" Government of India, it is necessary to obtain a storage license when five or more containers are to be stored.

The following safety equipments accessories are the pre-requisites to obtain the license
  1. Self contained Compressed air Breathing apparatus
  2. Emergency Kit
  3. Leak detector
  4. Protective clothing
  5. Safety shower and Eye wash fountain
  6. Weather cock
  7. Ventilation fans
  8. Suitable leak absorption system.

Chlorine :
Chorine gas even at low concentration is an irritant to mucous membranes and the respiratory system. The amount of gas inhaled determines the severity of the damage caused to the system. Inhalation of chlorine gas at higher concentration will cause labored breathing, nausea and unconsciousness.

OTHER GAS SCRUBBERS

Gas Liquid
HCI Water
Ammoina Water
Sulphur-di-oxide Sodium carbonate
Hydrogen-flouride Water
Hydrogen-sulphide Water
Carbon-di-oxide Sodium Hydroxide
Bromine

Physiological responses to chlorine gas exposure

(Published by the U. S. Bureau of Mines)

Effect
Volume of chlorine gas in air in ppm
Least amount required to produce slight symptoms after several hours of exposure
1
Least detectable odour
3.5
Maximum amount that can be inhaled for one hour without serious disturbances
4
Noxiousness, difficulty in breathing after few minutes
5
Least amount required to cause irritation of throat
15
Least amount required to cause coughing
30
Amount dangerous in 30 minutes to one hour
40-60
Kill most animals in a very short time
1000
 

Leak Rates:
The maximum chlorine discharge rate as liquid through a 100 Kg. cylinder is 100 Kgs/hr and that of 1,000 Kgs, ton container is 200 Kgs/hr. These discharge rates tend to vary over atmospheric conditions.

Design Capacity:
Based on leak rate parameters chlorine leak absorption systems are designed for cylinders & ton containers.

Leak absorption system for cylinder : 100 Kg/hr
Leak absorption system for ton container : 200 Kg/hr

System Design:
At few installations, process conditions are adequate to absorb the leaking chlorine but often emergency during instant and effective neutralisation is required.

When leaking chlorine cannot be consumed in the normal process, neutralisation it with an alkali solution is the best alternative.

The system designed by IEC is a product of 3 decades of experience and expertise in the field of chlorine handling, and tireless research to evolve a simple dependable system.

The absorption tower type chlorine gas scrubber is a dependable cost effective means of neutralizing chlorine.

The scrubber is designed to handle chlorine-air mixture. The system consists of an alkali tank, and absorption tower packed with raschig rings, alkali circulation pump, piping, valves, lightweight FRP hood and flexible PVC duct.

In the event of leak (from cylinder or ton container) when other means like use of emergency kit does not arrest the leak, the absorption system would allow the person to breathe easily rather than panic and choke in a polluted atmosphere.

The advantage of the system is that the chlorine leak is confined by a hood covering the leaking container and prevents the leakage from spreading.

Operating Principle:
The leaking container is covered by a hood. The blower sucks the chlorine gas and delivers to the absorption tower. The caustic solution is pumped counter-currently to the gas flow. Effective neutralisation occurs in the packed column by the reaction of chlorine with sodium hydroxide.

Elephant Trunk and Funnel:
During normal operation and maintenance the elephant trunk and funnel allow easy access to leak joints in pipelines and valves for neutralisation. This elephant trunk can be used when the empty ton containers are replaced by the filled ton containers. During such change over operation any leak in the flexible copper tube joints can be drawn by this elephant trunk for neutralisation at the absorption tower.

Emergency Operation: Switch on the pump and blower - The system is ready to rescue! Hood the container - an accident is averted!

Safety Accessories:
Personnel handling chlorine containers should have thorough knowledge and training in safety.

Personnel engaged in emergency operation should use self contained air breathing apparatus and protective clothing. Under no circumstances emergency operations should be undertaken without the aid of an air breathing apparatus.

Air breathing apparatus should always be kept outside the chlorine storage and operating area.

Chlorine leak detectors should be installed at the tonner storage area and the operation room to alert the personnel of chlorine leak.

The chlorine leak detector can also actuate the absorption system automatically, Once the Leak high level set point is exceeded, the detector sends a signal for starting the circulation pump and blower and the system is ready for neutralising chlorine.

Disposal:
The capacity of the alkali tank is sized to absorb leak from a completely filled chlorine container.

After the completion of neutralisation from a leaking container, the solution can be conveniently disposed off as a solution. The resultant solution is  highly oxidizing hypochlorite solution. It can also be used as a  as a bleaching agent or as a disinfectant.
.

Technical Data

Sl.No.   Ton container
1 Chlorine leak absorption capacity Kg/hr (Max.) 200
2 Maximum chlorine absorbing capacity (Kgs.) 900
3 Air: Chlorine mixture; (vol/vol) 6:1
4 Caustic soda per charge (Kgs.) 1,035
5 Water per charge (Litre) 8,500
6 Soln. temp. after absorption (deg. C) 60
7 Connected power (KW) 5.2
8 Floor space required (Metres) 4 x 4
9 Installation - Indoor / Outdoor-
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