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Chlorination Building Design

Chlorination Building design is based on the recommendations of 

  • CHLORINE INSTITUTE –USA,

  • IS 10553 (Part I) 1983 Requirements of Chlorination equipment

  • IS 4263 for CODE OF SAFETY FOR CHLORINE

 For installation, safe handling, storage and use of chlorination equipment and containers.

GENERAL BUILDING LAYOUT

Shipping containers and equipment containing chlorine should be located indoors, in a suitable fire-resistant building.  If a separate building is not provided, the chlorine containers and equipment should be located in an isolated room having floors and walls of fire-resistant construction. 

STORAGE AREA

Storage area should be cool, dry, well ventilated, clean of trash and protected from external heat sources.

Should be remote from elevators, gangways or ventilating systems, because in the event of a chlorine leak, dangerous concentration of chlorine may spread rapidly.

Ventilation must be sufficient to prevent accumulation of vapour pockets.  The fan intake should be located near the floor and exhaust fan must be sufficient to ventilate the whole area.  All fan switches should be outside the storage area.
As far as possible, the building for the storage of chlorine should be entirely of non-combustible construction and separate from other buildings.  In case the storage is not in a different building, it should be on ground floor, with at least two exits opening outside, and separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting walls and floors.
Standard firewalls may be needed to separate chlorine equipment from flammable materials.  Subsurface locations should be avoided.  Not less than two means of exit should be provided from each separate room or building in which chlorine is stored, handled, or used.  All exit doors should open out.

HANDLING EQUIPMENT
Careful consideration should be given to methods of handling containers, such as height of ceilings for overhead hoists or strength of floors for mechanical handling equipment, to ensure their adequacy. Suitable roller supports for storing containers for easy rotation and alignment for withdrawal of chlorine, lifting beams, hoist and weigh scale must be provided.
The gross weight of the container is 1,600 Kg.  It is recommended to have 2 ton monorail hoist electrically or manually operated  with traveling trolley along with lifting beam to lift the container.  Also attach a load indicator to indicate the full/empty condition of the container.
The lifting arrangement must be given suitably for directly lifting from transport lorry which can stationed below the monorail for hoisting the tonner to a storage position.

VENTILATION
In designing a ventilating system, the consequences of a chlorine leak should be considered.  In some cases natural ventilation may be adequate.  In others, ventilation by means of a suitable fan should be provided.  A one to four minute rate of air change may be required in an emergency.  Precautions must be taken to avoid discharging chlorine into areas where it can cause damage or injury.
If ducts are not necessary a wall-type exhaust fan may be satisfactory if it can be located near the floor on outside wall.  Where ducts are required to bring air to the fan and carry it to a safe point of discharge outside the building, a pressure type fan is needed.  Switches for all ventilating fans should be provided outside of chlorine rooms or buildings even when an inside switch is installed.

Air openings
Chlorine gas is heavier than air and has a tendency to collect at floor level.  The suction of ventilating fans should be located at or near floor level.    Fresh air inlets should be located to provide cross ventilation and to prevent developing a vacuum in the room.  Multiple fresh air inlets and fan suctions may be necessary to exhaust air from some equipment areas.

SAFE HANDLING OF CHLORINE CYLINDERS & TON CONTAINERS

  • Store chlorine cylinders up-right and secure them so that they cannot fall.

  • Ton containers should be stored on their sides on rails, a few inches above the floor.  They should not be stacked or racked more than one high.
  • Keep enough room between containers so that all are accessible in case of emergency.
  • Store the containers in a covered shed only.  Keep them away from hot sun or any other source of heat like  hot water, steam, direct flame and furnace, because excessive heating may tremendously increase the chlorine pressure inside the container resulting in its bursting.
  • Do not store chlorine containers with explosives, acids, turpentine, ether, anhydrous ammonia, finely divided metals or other flammable materials.

  • Do not store containers in wet and muddy areas.
  • Cylinders should be stored on a cement floor sloping towards a pit capable of collecting all the liquid in the cylinders.  Under no circumstances should water be allowed to run on to the chlorine in this pit.

  • Use cylinders in the order of their receipt, as valve packing can harden during prolonged storage and cause gas leaks when cylinders are finally used.

  • Filled and empty cylinders should be stored separately.

  • Protective covers for valves should always be secured, even when the cylinders are empty

  • No oil or any lubricant shall be used on any valve of the containers.

  • Badly fitting connections should not be forced and the correct tool should not be used  for opening and closing valves, they should never be hammered.

  • When  being emptied, the key should be opened fully, it should not be used at any time to regulate the flow of chlorine.

  • Implements and other equipment used for emptying the cylinders should be clean and free of grease, dust or grit.

  • Cylinders should never be lifted by means of the metal cap, nor should rope slings, chains or magnetic devices be used.  The ton containers should be handled with a suitable cradle with chain slings combinations with a hoist or crane having at least 2 metric tonnes capacity.

  • Never use cylinders as a roller to move other equipment.

  • Never tamper with any fusible plugs of tonners or apply heat to them.

  • In case of large leaks first escape is try to stop the flow of liquid by closing the valves.

  • Try to contain the spilled liquid by making bunds of sand.

  • Ensure that the escaped liquid chlorine does not enter the drains. 

  • After containing the liquid one can use fluoro protein foam to prevent evaporation of the liquid.

  • In case of large leakages the alternative solution is to absorb the chlorine in an alkaline medium such as caustic soda, soda ash or lime slurry. 

Caution

Keep the supply of caustic soda, soda ash or lime available.  Do not push the leaking container in the alkali tank.  Connect the container to a hose pipe and put the pipe in alkali tank.

 

Chlorine Leak

If a container commences leak during transport it should be carried on to its destination or manufacturer, whichever is nearer.  Keeping the vehicle moving will prevent accumulation of high concentrations.
Only specially trained and equipped workers should deal with emergency arising due to major leakage.
Checks should be made at least daily for any possible leakage of chlorine. Leakage must be attended immediately or it will become worse. In case the leak in the equipment in which it is being used, STOP the valve on the container at once. It is on the cylinder valve itself and cannot be stopped quickly, efforts should be made to shift the container to a safe open area.
Pinhole leaks in the walls of a damaged cylinder or tonner can sometimes be stopped by driving a hardwood peg or metal pin into the hole.  (Do not forget to mark that area). This is only a temporary measure and the container should be emptied as soon as possible.

  

CHLORINE LEAK ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

 

When the leak from a chlorine ton container cannot be arrested then the contents must be disposed safely. The first priority must be to prevent chlorine gas from spreading. The best method would be to enclose the leaking container with a FRP hood. The hood is connected with a flexible hose to the scrubber system.
The scrubber system may be of venturi-ejector type or of absorption column. In both cases the leaked chlorine is sucked from the hood and delivered to venturi or absorption column where chlorine is neutralized counter currently with caustic solution.

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

Air breathing apparatus with cylinder

For attending chlorine leaks

Cannister gas mask

For attending minor leaks and during changing of ton containers

Emergency kit

For handling leaks minor nature in ton container, piping and valves

Leak detector

For sensing chlorine leaks

Eyewash shower

For washing the eyes when exposed to chlorine leak.

Wind sack

For gauging the direction of wind

Protective clothing, gloves, goggles

For the operating personnel used during arresting leaks and changing containers

Ventilation fans

For removing leaked chlorine from the room

Lime pit

For absorbing chlorine leak from one ton container.



STORAGE LICENSE

According to the “Compressed Gas Cylinder Act” Government of India, it is necessary to obtain a storage license when five or more containers are to be stored.  For obtaining the storage license safety equipments are essential along with scrubber system.  Also the building has to be constructed as per norms suitable for storing toxic gas cylinders with adequate ventilation systems and handling accessories.

STATUTORY REQUIREMENT FOR OBTAINING STORAGE LICENCE

  • Leak detector with audible alarm.

  • Disaster plan for operation during emergency leak of chlorine.

  • One or more Hydrant point with adequate pressure near the premises.

  • At least one air breathing apparatus and 2 cannister gas masks.

  • Ammonia torch.

  • Weather cock.

  • Emergency kit .

  • Lime pit with gas manifold leading to pit .

  • Suitable plant layout as per statutory requirements.

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